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Constitution - Wikipedia

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or supreme casino organization is governed. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those supreme casino may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution.

Some constitutions such as the constitution of the United Kingdom are uncodified, but supreme casino in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations.

A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within statesa constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which casino indian dreaming are made and by whom.

Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights. The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any supreme casino country in the world, [3] containing articles in 22 parts, [4] [5] 12 schedules and amendments, withwords [6] in its English-language version, [7] while the Constitution of Monaco is the shortest written constitution, containing 10 chapters with 97 articles, supreme casino a total of 3, words.

The term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutioused for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments constitutiones principis: Generally, every modern written constitution confers specific powers to an organization or institutional entity, established upon the primary condition that it abide by the said constitution's limitations.

According to Scott Gordon, a political organization is constitutional to the extent that it "contain[s] institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenryincluding those that may be in the minority ".

Activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall within the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials are termed "within power" or, in Latin, intra vires ; if they do not, they are termed "beyond power" or, in Latin, ultra vires. For example, a students' union supreme casino be prohibited as an organization from engaging in activities not concerning students; if the union becomes involved in non-student activities, these activities are considered to be ultra vires of the union's charter, and nobody would be compelled by the charter to follow them.

An example from the constitutional law of sovereign states would be a provincial parliament in a federal state trying to legislate in supreme casino area that the constitution allocates exclusively supreme casino the federal parliament, such as supreme casino a treaty.

Action that appears to be beyond power may be judicially reviewed and, if found to be beyond power, must cease. Legislation that is found to be beyond power will be "invalid" and of no supreme casino this applies supreme casino primary legislation, requiring constitutional authorization, and secondary legislation, ordinarily requiring statutory authorization.

In this context, "within power", intra vires"authorized" and "valid" have the same meaning; as do "beyond power", ultra vires"not authorized" and "invalid". In most but not all modern states the constitution has supremacy over ordinary statutory law see Uncodified constitution below ; in such states when an official act is unconstitutional, i. It was never "law", even though, if it had been a supreme casino or statutory provision, it might have been adopted according to the procedures for adopting legislation.

Sometimes the problem is not that a statute is unconstitutional, but the application of it is, on a particular occasion, and a court may decide that while there are ways it could be applied that are constitutional, that instance was not allowed or legitimate.

In such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions for supreme casino law writssuch as quo warranto. Excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in found evidence of the earliest known code of justiceissued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca BC.

Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered; however it is known that it allowed some rights to his citizens. For example, it is known that it relieved tax for supreme casino and orphans, and protected supreme casino poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws. Some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isinthe code of Hammurabi of Babyloniathe Hittite codethe Assyrian code and Mosaic law.

In BC, a supreme casino named Draco codified the cruel oral laws of the city-state of Athens ; supreme casino code prescribed the death penalty for many offences nowadays very severe rules are often called "Draconian".

It eased the burden of supreme casino workers, and determined that membership of the ruling class was to be based on wealth plutocracyrather than by supreme casino aristocracy. Cleisthenes again reformed the Athenian supreme casino and set it on a democratic footing in BC. Aristotle ca BC was the first to link a formal distinction between supreme casino law and constitutional law, establishing ideas of constitution and constitutionalismand attempting to classify different forms of constitutional government.

The supreme casino basic definition supreme casino used to describe a constitution in general terms was "the arrangement of the offices in a state".

In his supreme casino Constitution of AthensPoliticsand Nicomachean Ethics he explores different constitutions of his day, including those of Athens, Spartaand Carthage. He classified both what he regarded as good and what he regarded as bad constitutions, and came to the conclusion that the best constitution was a mixed system, including monarchic, aristocratic, and democratic elements.

He also distinguished between citizens, who had the right to participate in the state, and non-citizens and slaves, who did not.

For constitutional principles almost lost to antiquity, see the code of Manu. Many of the Germanic people that check this out the power vacuum left by the Western Roman Empire in the Early Middle Ages codified their laws. One of the first of these Germanic law codes to be written was the Visigothic Code of Euric This was followed by the Lex Burgundionumapplying separate codes for Germans and for Romans; the Pactus Alamannorum ; and the Salic Law of the Franksall written soon after Influenced by Buddhist teachings, the document focuses more on social morality than institutions of government per se and remains a notable early attempt at supreme casino government constitution.

The Supreme casino of Medina Arabic: It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib later known as Medinasupreme casino MuslimsJewsand pagans. To this effect it instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, and pagan communities of Medina bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah.

It survived only in later editions of the 15th supreme casino. In EnglandHenry I's proclamation of the Charter of Liberties in bound the king for the first time in his treatment of the clergy and the check this out. This idea was extended supreme casino refined by the English barony when they forced King John to sign Magna Carta in The most important single article of the Magna Cartarelated to " habeas corpus ", provided that the king was not permitted to imprison, outlaw, exile or kill anyone at a whim—there must be due process of law first.

This article, Article 39, of the Magna Carta read:. No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, supreme casino outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor supreme casino we go against him or send against him, unless by legal judgement of his peers, or supreme casino the law of the land. This provision became the cornerstone of English liberty after that point.

The social contract in the original case was between the king and the nobility, but was gradually extended to all of the people. It led to the system of Constitutional Monarchywith further reforms shifting the balance of power from the monarchy and nobility to the House of Commons.

The Nomocanon of Saint Sava Serbian: This legal act supreme casino well developed. Sava's Nomocanon was the compilation of Civil lawbased on Roman Law and Canon law supreme casino, based on Supreme casino Councils and its basic purpose was to organize functioning of the young Serbian kingdom and the Serbian church.

Saint Sava began the work on the Serbian Nomocanon in while being at Mount Supreme casinousing The Nomocanon in Fourteen TitlesSynopsis of Stefan the EfesianNomocanon of John ScholasticusEcumenical Councils' supreme casino, which he modified with the canonical commentaries of Aristinos and Joannes Zonaraslocal church meetings, rules of the Holy Fathersthe law of Mosestranslation of Prohiron and the Byzantine emperors ' Novellae most were taken from Justinian 's Novellae.

The Nomocanon was completely new compilation of civil and canonical regulations, taken from the Byzantine sources, but completed and reformed by St. Sava to function properly in Serbia. Beside decrees that organized the life of church, there are various norms regarding civil life, most of them were taken from Prohiron.

Legal transplants of Roman - Byzantine law became the basis of the Serbian medieval law. The essence of Zakonopravilo was based on Corpus Iuris Civilis. It regulated all social spheres, so it was the second Serbian constitution, after St. The Code was based on Roman - Byzantine law. Between anda Saxon administrator, Eike von Repgowcomposed the Sachsenspiegelwhich became the supreme law used in parts of Germany as late as There are a few historical records claiming that this law code was translated into Ge'ez and entered Ethiopia around in the reign of Zara Yaqob.

Even so, its first recorded use in the function of a constitution supreme law of the land is with Sarsa Dengel beginning in In the Principality of Cataloniathe Catalan constitutions were promulgated by the Court from or even two centuries before, if we consider the Usatges of Barcelona as part of the compilation of Constitutions untilsupreme casino Philip V of Spain gave the Nueva Planta decreesfinishing with the historical laws of Catalonia.

These Constitutions were usually made formally as a royal initiative, but required for supreme casino approval or repeal the favorable supreme casino of the Poker real money android Courtsthe source antecedent of the modern Parliaments.

These laws had, as the other modern constitutions, preeminence over other laws, and they could not be contradicted by mere decrees this web page edicts of the king. The Golden Bull of was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.

In Chinathe Hongwu Emperor created and refined a document he called Ancestral Injunctions first published inrevised twice more before his death in These rules served in a supreme casino this web page sense as a constitution for the Ming Dynasty for the next supreme casino. The oldest written document still supreme casino a sovereign nation today [20] is that of San Marino.

The first book, supreme casino 62 articles, establishes councils, courts, various executive officers and the powers assigned to them. The remaining books cover criminal and civil law, judicial procedures supreme casino remedies.

Written inthe document was based upon the Statuti Comunali Town Statute ofsupreme casino influenced by the Codex Supreme casinoand it remains in force today.

In the Carta de Logu was legal code of the Giudicato of Arborea promulgated by the giudicessa Eleanor. Supreme casino was in force in Sardinia until it was superseded supreme casino the code of Charles Felix in April The Carta was a work of great importance supreme casino Sardinian history.

It was an organic, coherent, and systematic work of legislation encompassing the civil and penal law. The Gayanashagowathe oral constitution of the Iroquois nation also known as the Great Law of Peace, established a system of supreme casino in which sachems tribal chiefs of the members of the Iroquois League made decisions on the basis of universal consensus of all chiefs following discussions that were initiated by supreme casino single tribe.

The http://onatra.info/poker-senza-deposito-immediato.php of sachem descended through families, and were allocated by senior female relatives. Historians including Donald Grinde[22] Bruce Johansen [23] and others [24] believe that the Iroquois constitution provided inspiration for the United States Constitution and in was supreme casino by a resolution in Congress. Rakove stated that "The voluminous records we have for the constitutional debates of the late s contain no significant references to the Supreme casino and stated that there are ample European precedents to the democratic institutions of the United States.

The two forms of government are distinctive and individually remarkable in conception. Inthe Colony of Connecticut adopted the Fundamental Orderswhich was the first North Supreme casino constitution, and is the basis for every new Connecticut supreme casino since, and is also the reason for Connecticut 's nickname, "the Constitution Here ". The English Protectorate that was set up by Oliver Cromwell after the English Civil War promulgated the first detailed written constitution adopted by a modern state; [32] it was called the Instrument of Government.

This formed the basis of government for the short lived republic from to by providing a legal rationale for the increasing power of Cromwell, after Parliament consistently failed to govern effectively. Most of the concepts and ideas embedded into modern constitutional theory, especially bicameralismseparation of powersthe written constitution, and judicial reviewcan be traced back to the experiments of that period.

Drafted by Major-General John Lambert inthe Instrument of Government included elements incorporated from an earlier document " Heads of Proposals ", [34] [35] which had been agreed to by the Army Council inas a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the First Supreme casino Civil War.

Charles had rejected the propositions, but before the start of the Second Civil War, the Grandees of the New Model Army had presented the Supreme casino of Proposals as their alternative to the more radical Agreement of supreme casino People presented by the Agitators and their civilian supporters at the Putney Debates.

On January 4, the Rump Parliament declared "that the people are, under God, the original of all just power; that the Commons of England, being chosen by and representing the people, have the supreme power in this nation".

The constitution set up a state council consisting supreme casino 21 members while executive authority was vested in the office of " Supreme casino Protector of the Commonwealth "; this position was designated as a non-hereditary life appointment. It also required the calling of triennial Parliamentswith each sitting supreme casino at least five months.

Supreme casino modified version of the Humble Petition with the clause on kingship removed was ratified on 25 May. This finally met its demise in conjunction with the death of Cromwell and the Restoration of the monarchy. Other examples of European constitutions of this era were the Corsican Constitution of and the Swedish Constitution of All of the British colonies in North America that were to become the 13 original United States, adopted their own constitutions in andduring the American Revolution and before the later Articles of Confederation and United States Constitutionwith the exceptions supreme casino Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island.

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts adopted its Constitution inthe oldest still-functioning constitution of any U.


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